Adverbial locution. This expression is almost exclusively used in legal contexts and it can be translated as definitely, firm. E.g.: La Comisión Europea no ha realizado hoy ninguna propuesta en firme sobre cifras presupuestarias para los próximos años: The European Commission has not made any firm proposals today about budget figures for the next few years. dc
Adjective. This word is exclusively from Legal Spanish and it means mandatory, prescriptive, constraining. E.g.: Se garantizará así su carácter vinculante y su aplicación directa por los tribunales nacionales. The convention would thus be rendered binding and directly applicable by domestic courts.
The verb is vincular, to constrain, to make mandatory; although it can be used on a more generic tone as to link. dc
Feminine noun. Loan used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose while putting a lien on the property itself. E.g.: Cuídese de cualquier compañía que cobre una tarifa para refinanciar una hipoteca: Beware of any company that charges a fee to refinance a mortgage.
It is also used the expression crédito hipotecario, although it is used in a more formal register.
The verb is hipotecar. dc
Masculine noun. In Business and Legal Spanish aval is the person or thing that guarantees the payment of a credit, serves as a guarantee of the fulfillment of a certain thing or is responsible for the conduct of another person, normally by means of his signature. E.g.: De hecho, se ofreció al banco una garantía en forma de aval sobre el suelo y todos los activos fijos, así como siete letras de cambio: In fact a collateral in the form of a pledge on land and on all fixed assets was given to the bank, as well as seven bills of exchange.
On a more general note aval can be translated as endorsement.
The verb is avalar. dc
Masculine noun. In Business Spanish viático is the prevention, in kind or in money, of what is necessary for the sustenance of those who make a business trip. E.g.: Los asesores de UNISTAR reciben sólo viáticos y gastos de viaje: UNISTAR advisers receive only travel and subsistence costs.
In the Catholic Church, el viático is also the sacrament of the Eucharist administered to the sick who are in danger of death; ‘viaticum’ in English. As you can see, we are also speaking about a travel. dc
Verb. To certify, record, attest. This verb is much used in Legal Spanish in expressions such as hacer constar en actas: E.g.: No obstante, quisiéramos hacer constar en actas nuestras observaciones iniciales en relación con cuestiones que son pertinentes: However, we would like to put on record our initial comments in relation to issues that are pertinent and important to my delegation. dc
Verb. This word is almost always exclusively used in a business context and it means ‘to return an amount to the person who had given it’. Its exact opposite is desembolsar. E.g.: Por lo tanto, se necesita una devaluación real para reembolsar la deuda si se quiere evitar una ralentización o incluso… Thus, a real devaluation is necessary to repay the debt if a slowdown or even a recession in the debtor country is to be avoided; El administrador tendrá las funciones de desembolsar el dinero para el proyecto y llevar la contabilidad pertinente: It shall be his/her responsibility to disburse funds to the project and account for the LCIF grant funding.
The nouns are el reembolso and el desembolso. As you can see, both words come from bolsa, bag. On a more colloquial tone we have the verb embolsar, to pocket; but bolsar does not exist. dc
Feminine noun. It is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that can occur with some diseases when a sufficient percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through vaccination or previous infections, thereby reducing the likelihood of infection for individuals who lack immunity. Immune individuals are unlikely to contribute to disease transmission, disrupting chains of infection, which stops or slows the spread of disease. E.g.: Cuando los padres no vacunan a sus hijos, también perjudican a la población que los rodea, al reducir la llamada “inmunidad de rebaño”, que es la que impide los brotes: When parents do not vaccinate their children it also harms the population around them, by lowering “herd immunity,” which thwarts outbreaks. dc
Verb. To establish or determine the conditions of a piece of legislation, a deal, agreement, price or something else. E.g.: En otros países, la ley estipula que para determinados acreedores tales como profesionales liberales, la retención de impuestos…: In other countries, the law provides that for certain vendors such as self-employed people, withholding tax need only be…
The noun is la estipulación. dc
Feminine noun. Biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. E.g.: Se ha comprobado que la vacuna es muy eficaz en la prevención de la covid-19: The vaccine has proven very effective in preventing Covid-19.
The verbs are vacunar, to vaccine, and vacunarse, to get vaccinated. E.g.: Aquellas personas que viajen a zonas selváticas pueden vacunarse contra la fiebre amarilla, malaria y cólera, previa consulta médica: Those persons travelling to jungle zones can be vaccinated against yellow fever, malaria and cholera, subject to medical consultation. dc
Verb. Oposición or concurso de oposición is the examination process implemented in for recruitment and admission to the civil service and public companies. Aprobar oposiciones then means to pass those examinations. E.g.: Si ha aprobado unas oposiciones, introduzca y mantenga actualizado su currículum vitae en línea: If you have successfully completed an open competition exam, you are welcome to enter and update your CV online. dc
Feminine noun. Investigation or exercise of care that a reasonable business or person is normally expected to take before entering into an agreement or contract with another party or an act with a certain standard of care. E.g.: El Departamento de Financiación Estructurado y Corporativo encarga estudios de análisis o diligencia debida relacionados con operaciones sin garantía soberana: The Structured and Corporate Finance Department commissions due dilligence studies relating to non-sovereign guaranteed operations. dc